Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study

Study (n=61,075) found seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI 4.7–5.4) by the point-of-care test and 4.6% (4.3–5.0) by immunoassay, suggesting majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas.

SPS commentary:

A related commentary suggests any proposed approach to achieve herd immunity through natural infection is not only highly unethical, but also unachievable. Authors’ state that with a large majority of the population being infection naive, virus circulation can quickly return to early pandemic dimensions in a second wave once measures are lifted.


The Lancet

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